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Eighteen problems of LED packaging copper wire technology

In LED packaging, the copper wire process has been researched and developed by LED lamp manufacturers because of its cost reduction, and has been adopted by many manufacturers. However, in actual applications, compared with gold wire welding, the copper wire process has many problems. Some common questions are listed below, hoping to inspire everyone.

  1) The copper wire is oxidized, causing the gold ball to deform, which affects the product qualification rate.

  2) The aluminum layer of the first solder joint is damaged, especially for the thickness of the aluminum layer <1um;

  3) The second solder joint defect is mainly due to the crescent cracking or damage caused by the copper wire is not easy to combine with the bracket, which leads to the poor welding of the second welding, and there is a reliability risk during the customer's use;

  4) For many brackets, the power of the second solder joint, USG (ultrasonic) friction and pressure and other parameters need to be optimized, and the good rate is not easy to increase;

  5) It is difficult to open the package during failure analysis;

  6) The MTBA (hourly production rate) of the equipment will be lower than that of the gold wire process, which will affect the production capacity;

  7) The training cycle for operators and technicians is relatively long, and the requirements for the skill and quality of employees are higher than that of gold wire welding, which will definitely have an impact on production capacity at the beginning;

8) Material confusion is easy to occur. If there are gold wire and copper wire processes in the production, production control must pay attention to the storage life and distinguish the material list. If the line is incorrectly typed or oxidized, the line can only be scrapped. Miss operation warnings often appear, which increases the risk of bad Big;

  9) The cost of consumables increases, and the life of the wedge for copper wire is usually reduced by half or more than that of gold wire. At the same time, it increases the complexity of production control and the cost of porcelain nozzle consumption;

  10) Compared with gold wire welding, in addition to the firing rod (EFO), there is an additional forming gas (synthetic gas) protective gas delivery tube, and the two positions must be aligned. This directly affects the yield. Precise control of the shielding gas flow rate increases the cost when used more, and the defect rate is high when used less;

  11) Al Splash. Usually easy to appear in wafers with thick aluminum layers. It is not easy to identify the impact, but be careful not to cause a short circuit. It is easy to crush the PAD or a solder slip ball. Cause poor testing or customer complaints;

  12) Oxidation occurs after finishing the line, there is no standard to judge the risk, it is easy to cause poor contact and increase the defect rate;

  13) It is necessary to re-optimize the standards for Wire Pull, ball shear testing and SPC control lines. The current standards for use of gold wires may not be fully applicable to copper wire processes;

14) There are some restrictions on the underlying structure of the first pad, such as Low-K die electric, with vias, and with circuits on the bottom, all of which need to carefully evaluate the risk. The existing wafer bonding Pad design rule is for copper The line process needs to be optimized in depth. However, packaging factories that use copper wires today do not seem to be enough to affect the development of chips;

  15) Resistance from customers, copper wire technology is still more difficult to accept for some customers with higher reliability requirements, and even loses customer trust;

  16) The copper wire process may have reliability problems for the use of non-green plastic encapsulants (containing halogen elements)

  17) If there is fluorine or other impurities on the pad, it will also reduce the reliability of the copper wire.

  18) The evaluation of Die to Die bonding and Reverse bonding is not complete yet.


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